T here are many couples these days who are facing issues with the conceiving. The issue of conceiving is primarily due to male infertility issues only and the figures speaks that it is almost 50% of the total cases. The problem is with the conventional sperm parameter which includes sperm count, sperm motility and their morphology. To figure out the problem and the solutions, the semen analysis is done. Semen analysis measures the concentration of sperms, motility, and the morphology. This test does not provides a clear insight into the genetic constitution of sperms which is required for the embryo development.

What is DNA fragmentation?

D NA fragmentation is the process of breaking the strands into the small fragments. This is the process done in the laboratory by the experts to incorporate the collection of the cell. Sperm DNA fragmentation is higher in men and the men with the poor semen parameters have high sperm DNA fragmentation. Sperm DNA fragmentation occurs due to the increased toxic material in the environment.  With the increase in the air pollution , the infertility problems has increased and has also affected the reproductive outcomes for some of the couples.

Advantages of Sperm DNA Fragmentation

There are various advantages associated with the sperm DNA fragmentation and these are as follows:
  • Information from the test helps in the diagnosis of the disease, management, and the treatment of the infertile male partner.
  • Prognostic value in assessing outcome of assisted conception treatment.
  • Provides a reliable analysis, of sperm DNA integrity to help so as to identify men who are at verge of failing to initiate healthy pregnancy.

Causes of Sperm DNA fragmentation

The foremost factors which contribute to sperm DNA fragmentation is the oxidative stress. The others factors leading to the sperm DNA fragmentation are as follow:
  • Advanced age
  • Varicocoele
  • Stress
  • Alcohol
  • Recreational use of drugs
  • Sperm cytoplasmic droplets
  • Leucocytospermia
  • Pyrexia
Indications for men benefitted from SpermComet test
• Advanced age
• Varicocoele
• Poor semen parameters
• Exposure to harmful substances
• Recurrent miscarriage in partner
• Arrested embryo development
• Unexplained infertility
Treatment of high sperm DNA fragmentation
Treatment of sperm DNA fragmentation depends on the cause of infertility. The damage to the DNA is caused typically by the free radicals, change in free style, and the diet designed so as to protect against the oxidative stress to reduce the DNA fragmentation level. Various other treatment options available are as follow:
• Lifestyle changes- drugs, smoking, and occupation
• ICSI rather than IVF
• Testicular aspiration of sperm
• Diet which includes fresh foods, which includes antioxidants, Vitamin C & E
The reduction in the levels of the fragmentation can also be assessed by undergoing the second test after three months of the first test conducted.
Results of the DNA fragmentation
The results shown below here displays the categories of the fertility potential:
• If DNA damage are <=24%, there are no significant problem.
• If DNA damage range is greater than 25 % and less or equal to 49%, there is increased risk of fertility problem
• If DNA damage is greater than 50%; there are high risk of fertility problem and IVF treatment failure.

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