Pediatric conditionsAny condition that affects teens, children and infants. Children's bodies are different to adults as they go through periods of great growth and development changes and pediatric doctors are needed to determine what is normal for a particular age and stage of development. Some conditions occur only in children and therefore require specialist pediatric knowledge - e.g. congenital defects, immunization issues and bedwetting
Dilution testing is the major methodology in determining MIC (Fig. 1.1). An early method for dilution testing actually used rows of standard test tubes (macrodilution method). Typically, eight or more concentrations of an antibiotic were used with twofold dilutions (16, 8, 4, 2, and 1 µg/mL). A standard amount of bacteria, usually 5 x 105 CFUs/mL, is inoculated in each test tube. In 24 hours, the tubes are examined, and the first concentration in which there is no visible growth is determined to be the MIC.
Tube dilution has been modified by miniaturization techniques. Microdilution trays that contain 96 wells of 100 µL each allow up to 12 antibiotics to be tested at one time. Visible growth in a specific tube dilution can be determined visually or by automated photometers.
Another method for calculating MIC is the disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer method), which involves a bacterial inoculation of 1 to 2 x 108 CFUs/mL to an agar plate, on which is placed an antibiotic disk. After 24 hours of incubation, diameters of the zone of inhibition around the antibiotic disks are measured to the nearest millimeter (Fig. 1.2). This zone-of-inhibition diameter is related to the susceptibility of the isolate (i.e., linear regression analysis of zone diameter plotted against log 2 MIC values). This test is attractive in that it is simple and can be performed in community hospital laboratories. However, the disadvantage of this test is that it provides only a qualitative result rather than a quantitative MIC. Nonetheless, this diffusion method remains in place in many laboratories and can be helpful in many basic infections.
Pediatric conditions: Related Medical ConditionsTo research the causes of Pediatric conditions, consider researching the causes of these these diseases that may be similar, or associated with Pediatric conditions : -
- Acute epiglottitis
- Neonatal jaundice
- Infantile pyloric stenosis
- Sternomastoid tumour
- Cystic hygroma
- Stork bite
- Hirschsprung disease
- Imperforate anus
- Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
- Febrile convulsions
- Diaphragmatic hernia
- Necrotising enterocolitis
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