Myriad bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites can cause SIRS. Among the bacterial causes of sepsis, some age-related patterns are observed.
- Early-onset neonatal sepsis: Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, and Listeria monocytogenes are the most frequent organisms encountered.
- Late-onset neonatal sepsis: Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, E coli, Klebsiella species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter species, Candida species, S agalactiae, Serratia species, Acinetobacter species, and various anaerobes are some of the most commonly involved organisms.
- Sepsis in infancy
- Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis predominate in the United States and the developed world because conjugate H influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination has essentially eliminated disease caused by that organism.
- Hib, S pneumoniae, N meningitidis, and Salmonella species are the most frequent causes of bacterial sepsis among most infants worldwide.
- In regions where malaria occurs, Plasmodium falciparum is a frequent cause of SIRS in infancy.
- Sepsis in childhood: The same pathogens cause SIRS in childhood, although the presence of encapsulated organisms generally becomes less frequent as a child's immune response to polysaccharide antigens improves with age.
- Special considerations: Underlying conditions predispose to infection with particular pathogens.
- Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) predisposes to SIRS from various usual and unusual pathogens, particularly pneumococcus.
- Children with hemoglobin SS disease have a 400-fold increased risk of sepsis due to pneumococcus and Salmonella, among other pathogens.
- Congenital heart disease is a risk factor for endocarditis and SIRS.
- Genitourinary anomalies often increase the risk of urosepsis.
- Infants and children with significant burns are at risk for SIRS, caused by skin flora and nosocomial gram-negative pathogens in particular.
- Splenic dysfunction or absence, as well as complement, immunoglobulin, and properdin deficiency, predispose to sepsis due to encapsulated organisms.
For more information, medical assessment and medical quote
as email attachment to
Email : - firstname.lastname@example.org
Contact Center Tel. (+91) 9029304141 (10 am. To 8 pm. IST)
(Only for international patients seeking treatment in India)