The Right Atrium, receives "used blood" from the body. Blood will be pushed through the tricuspid valve to the
Right Ventricle, the chamber which will pump to the lungs through the pulmonic valve to the
Pulmonary Arteries, providing blood to both lungs. Blood is circulated through the lungs where carbon dioxide is removed and oxygen added. It returns through the
Pulmonary Veins, which empty into the
Left Atrium, a chamber which will push the Mitral Valve open. Blood then passes into the
Left Ventricle. Although it doesn't always look like it in drawings done from this angle, this is the largest and most important chamber in the heart. It pumps to the rest of the body. As it pumps, the pressure will close the mitral valve and open the aortic valve, with blood passing through to the
Aorta, where it will be delivered to the rest of the body.
Pediatric heart surgery is primarily designed for people interested in heart disease in adults. Since we’ve come on line however, it’s become apparent that there is also a great deal of interest in congenital heart disease, disorders that generally affect children. It is a vast topic, and one that is difficult to generalize about.
Congenital Heart Disease are defects present from birth and effect a little less than 1% of all children. The heart starts in the embryo as a simple pulsatile tube, and must twist and rotate, cavitate, form valves, etc. to form the complex four chambered organ – there are ample opportunities for something to go wrong. It is not surprising that abnormalities can occur, perhaps it is only surprising they occur so infrequently. They may take the form of abnormal holes between the chambers of the heart, incorrect connections between chambers and vessels, valves which don’t open properly, or others
Tetralogy of Fallot, the most common cyanotic defect (the heart delivers less oxygen to the body than normal). This complex congenital condition consists of four developmental defects that require surgical correction early in childhood.
The causes are difficult to determine and probably different in each case :-
Abnormalities of the chromosomes which carry genetic information are associated with congenital heart disease. Persons with well described complex congenital abnormalities, such as Down’s syndrome and many others, have an increased incidence of certain types of congenital heart disease.
Single ventricle, a collective term that describes defects in which oxygen-rich and poor blood is mixed in a single ventricle. Our pediatric cardiac surgeons have expertise in the Fontan procedure, which directs oxygen-poor blood directly to the pulmonary artery and lungs. The single ventricle is reserved for collecting oxygen-rich blood from the lungs, then pumping it to the aorta and the rest of the body.
There is further evidence of a genetic contribution in that parents who have had one child with a congenital heart abnormality have an increased risk of their next children having some sort of congenital heart abnormality as well. The risk is increased from the 1 in a thousand range to 1 in twenty. (Remember, that means a 19 in 20 chance of having a child without the abnormality). The risk may be higher in occasional families with certain forms of congenital disease which are passed down frequently to children.You Can Read More about Child Heart Surgery
Infections in the mother, particularly early in pregnancy, such as rubella ("German measles") are associated with congenital heart abnormalities in those children.
Congenital Heart Disease Surgery
Congenital heart defects are common, affecting nearly one percent of all newborns. Having a congenital heart defect increases the risk for developing complications such as heart failure, endocarditis, atrial fibrillation and heart valve problems. Surgical treatment of a congenital heart defect varies depending on the specific diagnosis.
Common surgical procedures include : -
Repair of holes in the heart
Irregular heart rhythms
A combination of the above conditions
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